Apart from training/testing scripts, We provide lots of useful tools under the tools/ directory.

Log Analysis

tools/analysis_tools/ plots loss/mAP curves given a training log file. Run pip install seaborn first to install the dependency.

python tools/analysis_tools/ plot_curve [--keys ${KEYS}] [--eval-interval ${EVALUATION_INTERVAL}] [--title ${TITLE}] [--legend ${LEGEND}] [--backend ${BACKEND}] [--style ${STYLE}] [--out ${OUT_FILE}]

loss curve image


  • Plot the classification loss of some run.

    python tools/analysis_tools/ plot_curve log.json --keys loss_cls --legend loss_cls
  • Plot the classification and regression loss of some run, and save the figure to a pdf.

    python tools/analysis_tools/ plot_curve log.json --keys loss_cls loss_bbox --out losses.pdf
  • Compare the bbox mAP of two runs in the same figure.

    python tools/analysis_tools/ plot_curve log1.json log2.json --keys bbox_mAP --legend run1 run2
  • Compute the average training speed.

    python tools/analysis_tools/ cal_train_time log.json [--include-outliers]

    The output is expected to be like the following.

    -----Analyze train time of work_dirs/some_exp/20190611_192040.log.json-----
    slowest epoch 11, average time is 1.2024
    fastest epoch 1, average time is 1.1909
    time std over epochs is 0.0028
    average iter time: 1.1959 s/iter

Result Analysis

tools/analysis_tools/ calculates single image mAP and saves or shows the topk images with the highest and lowest scores based on prediction results.


python tools/analysis_tools/ \
      ${CONFIG} \
      ${SHOW_DIR} \
      [--show] \
      [--wait-time ${WAIT_TIME}] \
      [--topk ${TOPK}] \
      [--show-score-thr ${SHOW_SCORE_THR}] \
      [--cfg-options ${CFG_OPTIONS}]

Description of all arguments:

  • config : The path of a model config file.

  • prediction_path: Output result file in pickle format from tools/

  • show_dir: Directory where painted GT and detection images will be saved

  • --show:Determines whether to show painted images, If not specified, it will be set to False

  • --wait-time: The interval of show (s), 0 is block

  • --topk: The number of saved images that have the highest and lowest topk scores after sorting. If not specified, it will be set to 20.

  • --show-score-thr: Show score threshold. If not specified, it will be set to 0.

  • --cfg-options: If specified, the key-value pair optional cfg will be merged into config file


Assume that you have got result file in pickle format from tools/ in the path ‘./result.pkl’.

  1. Test Faster R-CNN and visualize the results, save images to the directory results/

python tools/analysis_tools/ \
       configs/faster_rcnn/ \
       result.pkl \
       results \
  1. Test Faster R-CNN and specified topk to 50, save images to the directory results/

python tools/analysis_tools/ \
       configs/faster_rcnn/ \
       result.pkl \
       results \
       --topk 50
  1. If you want to filter the low score prediction results, you can specify the show-score-thr parameter

python tools/analysis_tools/ \
       configs/faster_rcnn/ \
       result.pkl \
       results \
       --show-score-thr 0.3


Visualize Datasets

tools/misc/ helps the user to browse a detection dataset (both images and bounding box annotations) visually, or save the image to a designated directory.

python tools/misc/ ${CONFIG} [-h] [--skip-type ${SKIP_TYPE[SKIP_TYPE...]}] [--output-dir ${OUTPUT_DIR}] [--not-show] [--show-interval ${SHOW_INTERVAL}]

Visualize Models

First, convert the model to ONNX as described here. Note that currently only RetinaNet is supported, support for other models will be coming in later versions. The converted model could be visualized by tools like Netron.

Visualize Predictions

If you need a lightweight GUI for visualizing the detection results, you can refer DetVisGUI project.

Error Analysis

tools/analysis_tools/ analyzes COCO results per category and by different criterion. It can also make a plot to provide useful information.

python tools/analysis_tools/ ${RESULT} ${OUT_DIR} [-h] [--ann ${ANN}] [--types ${TYPES[TYPES...]}]


Assume that you have got Mask R-CNN checkpoint file in the path ‘checkpoint’. For other checkpoints, please refer to our model zoo. You can use the following command to get the results bbox and segmentation json file.

# out: results.bbox.json and results.segm.json
python tools/ \
       configs/mask_rcnn/ \
       checkpoint/mask_rcnn_r50_fpn_1x_coco_20200205-d4b0c5d6.pth \
       --format-only \
       --options "jsonfile_prefix=./results"
  1. Get COCO bbox error results per category , save analyze result images to the directory results/

python tools/analysis_tools/ \
       results.bbox.json \
       results \
       --ann=data/coco/annotations/instances_val2017.json \
  1. Get COCO segmentation error results per category , save analyze result images to the directory results/

python tools/analysis_tools/ \
       results.segm.json \
       results \
       --ann=data/coco/annotations/instances_val2017.json \

Model Serving

In order to serve an MMDetection model with TorchServe, you can follow the steps:

1. Convert model from MMDetection to TorchServe

python tools/deployment/ ${CONFIG_FILE} ${CHECKPOINT_FILE} \
--output-folder ${MODEL_STORE} \
--model-name ${MODEL_NAME}

Note: ${MODEL_STORE} needs to be an absolute path to a folder.

2. Build mmdet-serve docker image

docker build -t mmdet-serve:latest docker/serve/

3. Run mmdet-serve

Check the official docs for running TorchServe with docker.

In order to run in GPU, you need to install nvidia-docker. You can omit the --gpus argument in order to run in CPU.


docker run --rm \
--cpus 8 \
--gpus device=0 \
-p8080:8080 -p8081:8081 -p8082:8082 \
--mount type=bind,source=$MODEL_STORE,target=/home/model-server/model-store \

Read the docs about the Inference (8080), Management (8081) and Metrics (8082) APis

4. Test deployment

curl -O curl -O
curl${MODEL_NAME} -T 3dogs.jpg

You should obtain a response similar to:

    "class_name": "dog",
    "bbox": [
    "score": 0.9987992644309998
    "class_name": "dog",
    "bbox": [
    "score": 0.9979367256164551
    "class_name": "dog",
    "bbox": [
    "score": 0.993338406085968

And you can use to compare result of torchserver and pytorch, and visualize them.

python tools/deployment/ ${IMAGE_FILE} ${CONFIG_FILE} ${CHECKPOINT_FILE} ${MODEL_NAME}
[--inference-addr ${INFERENCE_ADDR}] [--device ${DEVICE}] [--score-thr ${SCORE_THR}]


python tools/deployment/ \
demo/demo.jpg \
configs/yolo/ \
checkpoint/yolov3_d53_320_273e_coco-421362b6.pth \

Model Complexity

tools/analysis_tools/ is a script adapted from flops-counter.pytorch to compute the FLOPs and params of a given model.

python tools/analysis_tools/ ${CONFIG_FILE} [--shape ${INPUT_SHAPE}]

You will get the results like this.

Input shape: (3, 1280, 800)
Flops: 239.32 GFLOPs
Params: 37.74 M

Note: This tool is still experimental and we do not guarantee that the number is absolutely correct. You may well use the result for simple comparisons, but double check it before you adopt it in technical reports or papers.

  1. FLOPs are related to the input shape while parameters are not. The default input shape is (1, 3, 1280, 800).

  2. Some operators are not counted into FLOPs like GN and custom operators. Refer to mmcv.cnn.get_model_complexity_info() for details.

  3. The FLOPs of two-stage detectors is dependent on the number of proposals.

Model conversion

MMDetection model to ONNX (experimental)

We provide a script to convert model to ONNX format. We also support comparing the output results between Pytorch and ONNX model for verification.

python tools/deployment/ ${CONFIG_FILE} ${CHECKPOINT_FILE} --output-file ${ONNX_FILE} [--shape ${INPUT_SHAPE} --verify]

Note: This tool is still experimental. Some customized operators are not supported for now. For a detailed description of the usage and the list of supported models, please refer to pytorch2onnx.

MMDetection 1.x model to MMDetection 2.x

tools/model_converters/ upgrades a previous MMDetection checkpoint to the new version. Note that this script is not guaranteed to work as some breaking changes are introduced in the new version. It is recommended to directly use the new checkpoints.

python tools/model_converters/ ${IN_FILE} ${OUT_FILE} [-h] [--num-classes NUM_CLASSES]

RegNet model to MMDetection

tools/model_converters/ convert keys in pycls pretrained RegNet models to MMDetection style.

python tools/model_converters/ ${SRC} ${DST} [-h]

Detectron ResNet to Pytorch

tools/model_converters/ converts keys in the original detectron pretrained ResNet models to PyTorch style.

python tools/model_converters/ ${SRC} ${DST} ${DEPTH} [-h]

Prepare a model for publishing

tools/model_converters/ helps users to prepare their model for publishing.

Before you upload a model to AWS, you may want to

  1. convert model weights to CPU tensors

  2. delete the optimizer states and

  3. compute the hash of the checkpoint file and append the hash id to the filename.

python tools/model_converters/ ${INPUT_FILENAME} ${OUTPUT_FILENAME}


python tools/model_converters/ work_dirs/faster_rcnn/latest.pth faster_rcnn_r50_fpn_1x_20190801.pth

The final output filename will be faster_rcnn_r50_fpn_1x_20190801-{hash id}.pth.

Dataset Conversion

tools/data_converters/ contains tools to convert the Cityscapes dataset and Pascal VOC dataset to the COCO format.

python tools/dataset_converters/ ${CITYSCAPES_PATH} [-h] [--img-dir ${IMG_DIR}] [--gt-dir ${GT_DIR}] [-o ${OUT_DIR}] [--nproc ${NPROC}]
python tools/dataset_converters/ ${DEVKIT_PATH} [-h] [-o ${OUT_DIR}]

Dataset Download

tools/misc/ supports downloading datasets such as COCO, VOC, and LVIS.

python tools/misc/ --dataset-name coco2017
python tools/misc/ --dataset-name voc2007
python tools/misc/ --dataset-name lvis


Robust Detection Benchmark

tools/analysis_tools/ andtools/analysis_tools/ helps users to evaluate model robustness. The core idea comes from Benchmarking Robustness in Object Detection: Autonomous Driving when Winter is Coming. For more information how to evaluate models on corrupted images and results for a set of standard models please refer to

FPS Benchmark

tools/analysis_tools/ helps users to calculate FPS. The FPS value includes model forward and post-processing. In order to get a more accurate value, currently only supports single GPU distributed startup mode.

python -m torch.distributed.launch --nproc_per_node=1 --master_port=${PORT} tools/analysis_tools/ \
    ${CONFIG} \
    [--repeat-num ${REPEAT_NUM}] \
    [--max-iter ${MAX_ITER}] \
    [--log-interval ${LOG_INTERVAL}] \
    --launcher pytorch

Examples: Assuming that you have already downloaded the Faster R-CNN model checkpoint to the directory checkpoints/.

python -m torch.distributed.launch --nproc_per_node=1 --master_port=29500 tools/analysis_tools/ \
       configs/faster_rcnn/ \
       checkpoints/faster_rcnn_r50_fpn_1x_coco_20200130-047c8118.pth \
       --launcher pytorch


Evaluating a metric

tools/analysis_tools/ evaluates certain metrics of a pkl result file according to a config file.

python tools/analysis_tools/ ${CONFIG} ${PKL_RESULTS} [-h] [--format-only] [--eval ${EVAL[EVAL ...]}]
                      [--cfg-options ${CFG_OPTIONS [CFG_OPTIONS ...]}]
                      [--eval-options ${EVAL_OPTIONS [EVAL_OPTIONS ...]}]

Hyper-parameter Optimization

YOLO Anchor Optimization

tools/analysis_tools/ provides two method to optimize YOLO anchors.

One is k-means anchor cluster which refers from darknet.

python tools/analysis_tools/ ${CONFIG} --algorithm k-means --input-shape ${INPUT_SHAPE [WIDTH HEIGHT]} --output-dir ${OUTPUT_DIR}

Another is using differential evolution to optimize anchors.

python tools/analysis_tools/ ${CONFIG} --algorithm differential_evolution --input-shape ${INPUT_SHAPE [WIDTH HEIGHT]} --output-dir ${OUTPUT_DIR}


python tools/analysis_tools/ configs/yolo/ --algorithm differential_evolution --input-shape 608 608 --device cuda --output-dir work_dirs

You will get:

loading annotations into memory...
Done (t=9.70s)
creating index...
index created!
2021-07-19 19:37:20,951 - mmdet - INFO - Collecting bboxes from annotation...
[>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>] 117266/117266, 15874.5 task/s, elapsed: 7s, ETA:     0s

2021-07-19 19:37:28,753 - mmdet - INFO - Collected 849902 bboxes.
differential_evolution step 1: f(x)= 0.506055
differential_evolution step 2: f(x)= 0.506055

differential_evolution step 489: f(x)= 0.386625
2021-07-19 19:46:40,775 - mmdet - INFO Anchor evolution finish. Average IOU: 0.6133754253387451
2021-07-19 19:46:40,776 - mmdet - INFO Anchor differential evolution result:[[10, 12], [15, 30], [32, 22], [29, 59], [61, 46], [57, 116], [112, 89], [154, 198], [349, 336]]
2021-07-19 19:46:40,798 - mmdet - INFO Result saved in work_dirs/anchor_optimize_result.json

Confusion Matrix

A confusion matrix is a summary of prediction results.

tools/analysis_tools/ can analyze the prediction results and plot a confusion matrix table.

First, run tools/ to save the .pkl detection results.

Then, run

python tools/analysis_tools/ ${CONFIG}  ${DETECTION_RESULTS}  ${SAVE_DIR} --show

And you will get a confusion matrix like this:


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